How to Keep Your Computer Cool

When your computer is on, nearly all of its components become hot. Constant exposure to high temperature can cause serious damage to your computer.

Here is a list of ways in keeping your PC cool.

Check if your fans are running.

This is the first step when you find your computer overheating. Open the case, and then check if all fans are still working. If at least one is not working anymore, consider doing repairs or getting a replacement.

Regularly clean your computer.

It is essential to regularly clean your computer, especially the cooling fans. The fans attached inside the computer case is used for active cooling of the computer. Over time, dust and dirt can accumulate in these fans. The accumulate dirt can slow down or, in worse, stop fans from working. If fans fail in expelling the hot air fast enough, some internal parts will eventually overheat.

To clean your cooling fan:

1. Shut down your PC.

2. Open the computer case.

3. If there is excessive dirt inside the computer case, take out the computer fan.

4. You can use compressed air, small electronic vacuum or duster, or damp cloth in cleaning the fan.

5. If you use moisten cloth, make sure that the cooling fan is dry or there is no remaining moisture before connecting it again.

Clean other computer parts as well such as the monitor, mouse, and keyboard.

Before cleaning any hardware component, make sure that your machine is turned off. Otherwise, your computer is susceptible to electrostatic discharge that can damage its parts and you are also prone to grounding yourself.

Before applying any cleaning procedures to hardware, make sure to check its manufacturer’s manual if they have provided you with the recommended instructions in cleaning or maintaining it.

Do not spray or spill any liquid directly in computer parts.

Do not limit the air flow around your computer.

Place your computer in a room that can provide sufficient air flow. Make sure that it is not sitting right next into other objects that prevent air circulation, like walls or other computers. There should be at least two to three inches of space on both sides. Since most of the hot air comes out from the air vent at the back end of the computer case, this part should be completely clear and open.

Move your computer to a cooler and cleaner environment.

Move your PC in a place with proper ventilation. It is important that the physical location will not contribute further heat to the computer. Make sure that your PC is not placed near a furnace, refrigerator, cooking appliances, and other things that can blow hot air or can transfer heat into your computer system.

To prevent your PC from overheating, it is advised to place it in an air-conditioned room.

Note: be careful when moving your computer in order to avoid damage on sensitive components inside it like the CPU, graphics card, hard drive, and motherboard.

Use your computer with case closed.

It seems logical to let the case open while the computer is running to keep it cooler. This is true. However, dirt and dust will accumulate and clog the computer fans faster when the case is opened. This can cause the fans to slow down or fail at cooling your computer.

Upgrade your CPU fan.

The CPU is the most important component inside the computer. When you are running demanding applications, the CPU and graphics card induce more heat. It can get so hot that it can be cooked.

Consider purchasing a high-quality and larger CPU fan that can keep the CPU temperature lower than the pre-built CPU fan in your computer could.

Consider installing a component-specific fan.

If you have observed that the other components are overheating, install a component-specific fan to cool them down.

Consider installing a case fan.

This small fan can be attached to either the front or back of the computer case. There are two types of case fan: one that can draw cooler air into the case, and one that can expel warm air from the case. Installing both is a great way to cool your computer.

Turn off your computer when not in use.

A computer continues to produce heat as long as it running, even if you aren’t using it. If you will only have a few minutes of inactivity, at least set your computer to hibernation. Basically, it will also turn off your computer but the opened files and programs are stored in your hard disk.

Also, unplug external hardware of no longer use like printers and scanners.

Overheating can destroy and shorten the lifespan of components inside your computer. The major upside of keeping your computer cool is that it can help you avoid expensive repairs or unnecessary upgrades.

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RIP-OFFS: Online Computer Repair and Remote Virus Removal

I have been doing remote computer repair for people across the United States and around the world for nearly a decade, giving PC help to people with malware removal, virus removal, pop ups, or a slow computer. Online computer repair or online virus removal is definitely a time saver and a money saver. Remote virus removal can certainly save a person hundreds of dollars over the cost of taking the PC to a local computer repair shop.

Although using a remote online computer technician is definitely the way to go for PC help, nevertheless there are some pitfalls. I constantly hear horror stories from customers that had previously used an online computer repair service for their computer problems with less than desirable results. Consequently I have put together this list of computer scams to watch out for when contracting with someone to provide remote computer help.

1. USA Based – Really? Most people don’t want to talk to someone in India with an accent so heavy that you can’t understand them. That’s why many websites will say, “USA Based.” But are they really? I have found that many websites advertise they are in the U.S. but the person on the phone, who claims they are in the U.S. still sounds like someone from India. It is not wise to deal with someone who has just lied to you. Hint: Read the text of a website carefully. You will probably find one or two grammatical errors on sites that they are not really U.S. based, and of course, you will know instantly when they answer the phone. Just say, “Sorry, wrong number.”

2. Super Low Price: There are companies out there claiming they can remove viruses, plus fix any and all problems, and do a PC tune-up, all for the low price of $39.99. As someone who has been doing computer service full time for 24 years, I can tell you that it takes several hours for a PC tech to do all that and do it right. How can they do this for such a cut-rate price? There are three ways: 1. Hire a bunch of young geeks that are still learning and let them practice on your computer. 2. Be based in India or the Philippines or some foreign country where labor is cheap. 3. Do the very minimum to just get by without concern for conscientious quality work. Some places do all three. The old adage – “You get what you pay for.” Applicable to online computer repair. If you want good quality remote computer repair you need to pay for it. Try to save a buck and you can end up with a destroyed computer and/or many hours of frustration as you call back over and over to try to get the online computer help you were promised. Good Advice: If you want a good PC tech, don’t pick the cheapest bidder.

3. Certified – Really? Does the website tell you who is going to be fixing your PC? Are the name, credentials and experience of the computer technician posted on the website? I have called some of these supposedly Microsoft certified websites and when I asked exactly which credential was held with Microsoft and the computer service company could not give me an answer.

4. Free Antivirus Software: The online computer service company offers a free antivirus software after the repair. Be aware that they are only giving you something you can get for free yourself. Again, you get what you pay for. Free antivirus software might be better than nothing, but not by much. I remove malware every day from computers that are protected by free antivirus products and they are very infected. Only the antivirus products that you purchase are adequate. When a remote computer repair company gives free inferior products to customers it gives them a false sense of security that will lead to their PC eventually getting hit by a virus. A PC technician that is really looking out for your best interests will offer to sell you a quality product that works.

5. Free Scan Scam: Here’s how it works. You call a remote computer repair service because your printer doesn’t work. The online computer service says they will connect to your machine and tell you what is wrong for free, no obligation. Then you can decide what to do next. Free diagnosis! Sounds good, right? Lots of people fall for this. So the PC technician connects to your machine and runs a program (that they have created) that pretends to do a scan of your computer. In just 3 minutes this software reports hundreds of registry errors, dozens of problems in the event log, dozens of viruses, trojans and spyware. They tell you that you have got to get this fixed right away before all your files disappear and your computer won’t work at all. After the scare tactics, they give you an outrageous price of $300.00. After paying that and they supposedly fix all these errors, chances are your printer still will not work. But the real fact is – there is not a piece of software in the world that can tell you what’s wrong with a computer in a few minutes. I have over two decades of experience and I can tell you that it takes a couple hours of careful work to properly evaluate a computer. I have helped many customers who told me they had just experienced this scam. Fortunately they called me and in many cases their computer was not in nearly as bad a shape as they had been led to believe.

6. One Year Service Contract Scam: Pay $300 per year and call for remote PC repair as often as you want. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. I’ve talked to lots of people that have been burned by this. There is only one way an online computer repair company can offer that and stay in business, and that is to not fulfill their promise. The service contract is long and in fine print and is not read by most customers. I have read them. The fine print says that if you bother them too much they can just cut you loose, provide no further computer help, and not give you any refund. Their interest is going to be in getting new customers to pay the $300, not in providing computer help for you over and over. You also have to wonder if such a computer service company will even still be in business six months down the road.

7. Cold Call Scam: “Microsoft called me and said my PC is infected.” I have heard this countless times from people that call me for advice. I tell them right off the bat: “I’ll be happy to do a virus check and perform malware removal on your PC for $59.99, but know this first, what you were told is not true and it was not Microsoft that called you. Microsoft doesn’t call anyone and they would have no way of knowing if your PC is infected.” This scam is very common. If you get this call do not be alarmed and don’t be suckered into paying them to “fix” it.

8. The Big Company Scam: Many of my customers have told me that they went to a company website for their computer problems and got a number and then called and talked with HP, or Dell, or the list goes on: Microsoft, IBM, Norton, Toshiba, etc. and this company told them they had multitudes of problems, they needed malware removal and other repairs to take care of pop ups, a slow computer, or other issues and they could fix all this for a certain price. What these people didn’t realize is that they were not actually speaking with the actual company they thought they were. Many online computer service companies unscrupulously advertise that they are Dell, or Microsoft or whoever. They put up websites and Google ads designed to trick you into thinking they are support for HP or whoever. Once they have you thinking they are the company that made your computer, or your software or your printer, then they have a better chance at selling you their next scam. Anytime you go to a website look at the URL and see where you are. If it says for example, or something like that and not,, then you are possibly on a scam website.

Summary: Online Remote Computer Repair is the easiest and most economical way to get your computer repaired. By being aware of the above scams you can select a reputable computer service and save time and money.

Mark Swarbrick is the owner of For the past 20 years he has been making his living full-time at online computer service or remote computer repair. His goal is not a one-time quick-fix, but to make each caller a satisfied life-time customer. Mark can help with online computer repair, online virus removal, remote malware removal, Pop ups, fix slow computer, speed up PC, general PC problems, PC tune-up and computer performance issues. Mark can be reached at his website address or by phone: 480-430-7780

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Should I Fix My Computer or Buy a New One?

Unless you are a recent entrant to the world of computers, this is probably a question you’ve asked yourself before. After all, if your computer doesn’t work properly, you may have a strong instinct to throw it out and go get another one but keep wondering if it is worth fixing. This article is intended to help you decide which of these paths you should take to get a PC up and running so you can go about your work or play.

You may be thinking that since this is a computer repair technician writing this article, I’m going to tell you that in almost every case, you should fix your computer rather than get a new one. Not so. Just as there are a host of reasons to fix your computer, there are plenty of reasons to buy a new one instead.

Although the costs of consumer computers are nowhere near the costs of new cars, those of you who have had to decide whether to fix an older automobile or buy a new one may find it helpful to think about that process because it is similar. I would advise you to make two columns and write the reason to buy or fix in the appropriate column.

If you think it through this way, you will find yourself coming to a reasoned and reasonable conclusion. Also remember that if another person has your same PC model and the same problem, what he or she decides does not make their decision good for you. Keep in mind that there is not a right or wrong answer, only the best answer for you. While this article and others can help your decision process, the best answer for you is something only you can decide. Be wary of people who are certain that they know what you need.

Let’s look at some reasons to repair your current computer:

• Budget – Although the extra expense can be worth it, buying a new PC is USUALLY more expensive than fixing your current computer. If you are on a tight budget or are just a frugal person, fixing most problems may be best for you.

• Data – This second reason is related to the budget item. Whichever route you decide to take, you can (usually) keep your pictures, documents, music, emails, business files, and important personal information. It is easier, though, if you are keeping your computer because if you get a new PC, you will have to pay someone to transfer that information to a new PC. Many of you can do this without problem but not everyone can. Also, if your PC won’t boot to Windows and the data has to be extracted from the computer, most of you will need someone to get the data off the hard disk, which means you will be paying both for a new computer plus a service fee to a computer technician.

• Applications – If you get a new computer, you will also have to reinstall all of your applications. Some can be downloaded, like iTunes or Adobe Acrobat Reader. Any that you paid for, such as Microsoft Office, however, will likely be on CD/DVD. They must be installed from this media, along with the product key that came with them. My experience has been that both organized and unorganized people have a tendency to lose application CDs, particularly if they have had their computer for several years. Before buying a new computer, gather all your application installation CDs and make sure you have a disc for all the applications you use. You may be able to avoid this process and have all your applications as they were if you get your computer fixed. However, it should be noted that if the proposed fix to your current PC is to reinstall Windows, this issue is moot because all of your applications will have to be installed on a new Windows installation, just as on a new PC.

• Upgrades – If your computer is just a little slow or can’t do a certain thing, you can usually upgrade the RAM or video card, or the aforementioned USB 3.0 card much more cheaply than you can buy a new PC.

• Windows 8 – Have you used or seen Windows 8 or 8.1? If you get a new computer, it will have Windows 8.1 on it. This is important because for all its pros and cons (and I don’t wish to engage those questions here) many, many people find it hard to use and a significant departure from the interface of Windows 7 and earlier versions. Like anything else, you would probably get used to it, no matter how much you dislike it, but if it isn’t intuitive to you, why buy a machine that comes with it? Windows 7 can be put on new computers after purchase by computer technicians if you buy a copy online. But again, you would be paying more-this time for a new computer, plus a legitimate copy of Windows 7, plus the cost of a service technician to install Windows 7 on the computer.

• “Right Fit” – Buying something new is usually seen as “sexier” than keeping or repairing something used. So, if none of the reasons above grab you, think of this. If you were happy with your computer before it needed to be fixed-happy with its speed, memory, accessories, capabilities and performance, it is likely that that computer is the “Right Fit” for you. Why get another computer when you can probably spend less and get to keep something that fits you?

Now, let’s take a look at some of the reasons to replace your broken computer rather than fix it:

• Age – Although there is no specific age at which retirement and replacement kicks in, most people know it when they see it. If your computer was slow even when in tip top shape, that’s probably a clue you need to go to the computer store.

• Antiquated Accessories – If your PC has a factory-installed floppy disk drive or has a CD but no DVD drive, it is probably time to think about a new PC. Many people want fast peripherals through a USB 3.0 port. If you have a desktop, you can easily get a card installed, so I wouldn’t consider this alone a reason to trash the old PC, but if you’re keeping score, I would mark it in the buy column.

• Major Hardware Damage-If you spilled a Coke or such in the computer, ruining its motherboard, I would not invest in a repair.

• The Laugh Factor – Although I have never laughed at my customers, I have, on occasion, laughed at a machine that is brought in. Why? Because it is so old, so full of dust and cigarette smoke, so slow, that it is almost a joke that someone is actually paying me to fix this computer. If this is your computer, there’s nothing to be embarrassed about but if you don’t already know, deep down, that you need a new computer then take that message from this article. If you decide not to fix it or you just keep your computers for a long time, make sure they inside is cleaned our regularly, whether you do it yourself or bring it in for a cleaning. That dust and smoke residue doesn’t just look bad, it can overheat your computer and cause its death

The question of whether to fix or whether to buy anew can be confusing. I hope that these questions and commentary have helped you make a solid decision. If you decide that you want your computer fixed, call Tom at (903) 650-9483.

If you have decided to get your computer fixed and are in the Atlanta, TX area, call Tom at (903) 650-9483.

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Computing Crunch Power And The Simulation Hypothesis

It has been postulated that our reality might in fact be a virtual reality. That is, some unknown agency, “The Others”, have created a computer simulation and we ‘exist’ as part of that overall simulation. One objection to that scenario is that in order to exactly simulate our Cosmos (including ourselves) we would require a computer the size of our Cosmos with the sort of crunch power that could duplicate our Cosmos on a one-to-one basis, which is absurd. The flaw is that realistic simulations can be made without resorting to a one-on-one correlation.


Here’s another thought on the Simulation Hypothesis which postulates that we ‘exist’ as a configuration of bits and bytes, not as quarks and electrons. We are virtual reality – simulated beings. Here is the “why” of things.

Really real worlds (which we presume ours to be) are simulating virtual reality worlds – lots and lots and lots of them – so the ratio of virtual reality worlds to really real worlds is lots, and lots and lots to one. That’s the main reason why we shouldn’t presume that ours is a really real world! If one postulates “The Other”, where “The Other” might be technologically advanced extraterrestrials creating their version of video games, or even the human species, the real human species from what we’d call the far future doing ancestor simulations, the odds are our really real world is actually a really real virtual reality world inhabited by simulated earthlings (like us).

Now an interesting aside is that we tend to assume that “The Other” are biological entities (human or extraterrestrial) who like to play “what if” games using computer hardware and software. Of course “The Other” could actually be highly advanced A.I. (artificial intelligence) with consciousness playing “what if” scenarios.


Anyway, each individual simulated world requires just so many units of crunch power. We humans have thousands of video games each ONE requiring a certain amount of computing crunch power. There may be in total is an awful lot of computing crunch power going on when it comes to these video games collectively, but what counts is the number of video games divided by the number of computers playing them. Not all video games are being played on just one computer at the same time. If you have a ten-fold increase in video games, and a ten-fold increase in the number of computers they are played on, there’s no need for ever increasing crunch power unless the nature of the game itself demands it. Video games today probably demand more crunch power than video games from twenty years ago, but we’ve to date met that requirement.

Now if a really real world created thousands of video games, and the characters in each and every one of those video games created thousands of video games and the characters in those video games created thousands of their video games, okay, then ever increasing crunch power within that original really real world is in demand. That’s not to say that that ever increasing need for crunch can’t be met however. But that’s NOT the general scenario that’s being advocated. For the immediate here and now, let’s just stick with one really real world creating thousands of uniquely individual simulated virtual reality worlds (i.e. – video games). Ockham’s Razor suggests that one not overly complicate things unnecessarily.

That said, a variation on Murphy’s Law might be: The ways and means to use computing crunch power expands to meet the crunch power available and is readily on tap.

Sceptics seem to be assuming here that if you can simulate something, then ultimately you will pour more and more and more and more crunch power (as it becomes available) into that which you are simulating. I fail to see how that follows of necessity. If you want to create and sell a video game, if you put X crunch power into it you will get Y returns in sales, etc. If you put 10X crunch power into it, you might only get 2Y returns in sales. There is a counterbalance – the law of diminishing returns.

Video gamers may always want more, but when the crunch power of the computer and the software it can carry and process exceeds the crunch power of the human gamer (chess programs / software anyone), then there’s no point in wanting even more. A human gamer might be able to photon-torpedo a Klingon Battlecruiser going at One-Quarter Impulse Power, but a massive fleet of them at Warp Ten might be a different starship scenario entirely. Gamers play to win, not to be universally frustrated and always out performed by their game.

It makes no economic sense at all to buy and get a monthly bill for 1000 computer crunch units and only need and use 10.

But the bottom line is that computer crunch power is available for simulation exercises as we have done. Anything else is just a matter of degree. If us; them; them of course being “The Other” or The Simulators.


Are there limits to crunch power? Well before I get to agreeing to that, which I ultimately do, are opponents assuming that crunch power won’t take quantum leaps, perhaps even undreamed of quantum leaps in the generations to come? I assume for starters that we in the early 21st Century don’t have enough computing power to simulate the Cosmos at a one-to-one scale. Would quantum computers alter this analysis? I’m no expert in quantum computers – I’ve just heard the hype. Still, are available crunch power sceptics’ game to predict what might or might not be possible in a 100 years; in a 1000 years? Still, the ability to increase computing crunch power could go on for a while yet. Isn’t the next innovation going from a 2-D chip to a 3-D chip?

Still, Moore’s Law (computing crunch power doubles every 18 to 24 months) can’t go on indefinitely and I wasn’t aware that I.T. people have postulated that Moore’s Law could go on “forever”. That’s a bit of a stretch.

Okay, even if we accept that fact that we’re all greedy and want more, more, more and even more crunch power – and ditto by implication our simulators – then there will ultimately be limits. There might be engineering limits like dealing with heat production. There may be resolution limits. There may be technological limits as in maybe quantum computing isn’t really feasible or even possible. There will be economic limits as in you may want to upgrade your PC but your budget doesn’t allow for it; you ask for a new research grant to buy a new supercomputer and get turned down, and so on.

Perhaps our highly advanced simulators have hit the ultimate computer crunch power wall and that’s all she wrote; she could write no more. There’s probably a ‘speed of light’ barrier equivalent limiting computer crunch power. Then too, our simulators have competing priorities and have to divide the economic / research pie.

I’ve never read or heard about any argument that the Simulation Hypothesis assumes ever and ever and ever increasing crunch power. It assumes that the computer / software programmer has sufficient crunch power to achieve their objective, no more, no less.

In other words, the computer / software simulator is going to be as economical with the bits and bytes as is as possible to achieve that’s still compatible with the degree of realism desired. That makes sense.

The bottom line is that our simulated reality just has to be good enough to fool us. In fact, if we ‘exist’ as a simulation, then from the get-go you have experienced nothing but a simulated ‘reality’ and thus you wouldn’t be able to recognize really real reality even if it clobbered you over the head!


There’s one obvious objection to those who propose that there’s not enough computer power to create 100% realistic simulations. Here realistic means a one-to-one relationship. But such a degree of realism isn’t necessary and we might not even not even be able to conceive of our simulator’s really real reality since we’ve known no other reality other than the one we exist in right now. We have no other reality to compare ours to other than other realities (i.e. – simulations of our reality) that we create, which of course includes our dreams and say films.

The degree of realism now possible with CGI is in fact equal to the actual degree of realism we experience in our everyday world; with everyday experiences. I’m sure you must have seen over the last five years movies that had loads of CGI embedded in them, and even while knowing that what you were seeing was CGI, you couldn’t actually detect apart the simulation (say the dinosaurs in “Jurassic World”) from what was actually real (like the actors). Still, you have little trouble telling the difference between film action, even 3-D film action, and live action.

Maybe in this reality you can tell the difference between a film and live action, but what if that live action was as simulated as the film? If you have spent your entire existence as live action virtual reality (without knowing it of course) and now and again watching virtual reality film which you can distinguish from your live action virtual reality, then you can have absolutely no idea of the nature of the really real reality where our simulators reside and of the simulators themselves (although it might be a best guess to speculate that there will be a lot of similarities) and how much crunch power they have devoted to their hobby / gaming / research (we could be a grand “what if” sociological experiment). Maybe their Moore’s Law gives them in theory 1000 units of crunch power, but they only need or can afford 100 units. Just because you might be able to afford a fleet of sports cars, several yachts, a 28 bedroom mansion, a half-dozen holiday homes and a half-yearly round-the-world holiday and can buy all of the women you might want doesn’t of necessity mean you will spend that money.

Anyway, my objection to the one-on-one objection is that in a simulation, not everything has to be simulated to an exacting standard. The computing power required to make our immediate environment seem really real is vastly different than what is required to make the Universe outside of our immediate environment seem really real. I mean a planetarium does a great job of simulating all the sorts of things a planetarium simulates, but you wouldn’t claim that a planetarium requires the same amount of bits and bytes to simulate that which are required for the really real object it is simulating. Two really real galaxies in collision would be composed of way more bits and bytes than required by astronomers simulating two galaxies in collision on their PC. The astronomers don’t need that extra crunch power. So, perhaps 90% of our simulator’s computer power is devoted to making our immediate neighbourhood (i.e. – the solar system) seem really realistic, and the other 10% simulates everything external to our immediate neighbourhood. Further, even within our solar system you don’t have to simulate each and every particle, atom and molecule that would – in a really real solar system – reside inside say the Sun or Jupiter or even the Earth. Things that you may think need to be computed may in fact not need to be computed in order to achieve the goal of making things seem really real to us.

In our ‘reality’, when any scientist postulates some theory or hypothesis or other, they ignore many possible variables. A biologist doing “what if” evolution scenarios probably doesn’t concern himself with each and every possible astronomical scenario that may impact on evolution at each and every possible moment. You gotta draw the line somewhere.

The only one-on-one simulation I can think of that we do would be in the realm of particle and quantum physics. Simulating two protons smashing together is about as one-on-one as you can get.


To date, when talking about our virtual reality, the Simulation Hypothesis, I’ve pretty much had in mind the idea that our programmers, The Others otherwise known as The Simulators, were monitoring us pretty much like we monitor our simulations – from a distance on a monitor. But what if The Simulators actually walk among us? That is, their simulation is more akin to a Star Trek holodeck than a standard video game.

We have always tended to immerse ourselves in virtual reality, sometimes involuntarily as in our dreams and dream-worlds, but more often as not voluntarily, from telling ghost stories around the camp-fire; to reading novels; to watching soap, horse or space operas; even just by daydreaming. In more recent times that immersion has extended to video and computer games, but usually from the outside looking in at a monitor while fiddling with a mouse or a joystick or other controls. You sometimes quasi-immerse yourself inside virtual reality as in creating an avatar hence creating a virtual copy of yourself (or make-believe copy of yourself) and interacting with other virtual people via their avatars on-line, as in “Second Life”. But what we really desire, truth be known, is to actually immerse our real selves into virtual reality scenarios.


A training simulation needs to be only as realistic as is required to train the trainee into perfecting whatever skills are required. Take a driver training simulation package. Apart from the fact that the simulation can be almost of average animation standard, the images constantly shift – the turnpike software retreats into the background as one turns off onto a country road and new software is now to the fore. The image constantly changes and so does the software required for that image. The computer only has to crunch a fraction of the overall software at any one time.

Taking Planet Earth, the number of particles, atoms, molecules, etc. requiring simulation hasn’t changed very much over geological time. For example, there’s no need any more to simulate dinosaurs or trilobites so those bits and bytes are now freed up for other and newer species. If you have simulated Planet Earth, you haven’t needed to pour more and more and more crunch power resources into the simulation since you’re dealing with a finite object that is ever recycling those particles, atoms and molecules.

The simulators do not have to simulate each and every elementary particle in their simulation just in case one day their virtual beings (that’s us) decide to interact with elementary particles that should be there but aren’t. Their simulation software could be tweaked / upgraded as necessary as their simulation virtual reality scenario unfolds. Take Mars. Our simulators could for the longest time just use software that simulated a moving reddish dot in the sky that made strange retrograde motions (loop-the-loops) from time to time. Then the telescope scenario came to pass and the software was upgraded to show features – polar caps, areas of apparent ‘vegetation’, two moons, dust storms and of course ‘canals’. Then came Mariner 4, 6 & 7 and 9 and the simulator’s software had to be upgraded again to show close-up features from those fly-by Mariners and Mariner 9 that went into orbit. Then of course came the landers like Viking, and kin and another tweak was required. It’s all too easy.

Software past its use-by date can just be deleted – no memory required. If it is ever needed again, well that’s just another tweak or upgrade. Your memory has deleted lots of events in your life, but coming across an old letter, photograph, diary, etc. can restore what your brain didn’t feel it needed to store any more.


If I put a character, let’s call him Rob, into a video game and Rob gets zapped, no guts will appear because I didn’t program them in. If we are on the other hand the simulation; characters in the video game not of our making, our guts are there but will appear if and only if the unfolding scenario requires it. The bottom line remains that not all software is front-and-centre at the same time. Further, software can be tweaked as the simulation scenario unfolds, just like we get upgrades to our software on our PC’s.

As for having to simulate each and every thing that is required, like Rob’s heart, lungs, liver, etc., in any simulation only a part of the whole is active and ‘in your face’ at any one time. When the scenario demands that something else now has to be ‘in your face’ instead, well that software is available, but other software now retires to the background until and if it is needed again. In other words, not 100% of the software that comprises the entire simulation is actually front-and-centre at any one time so the computer’s ability to cope isn’t taxed beyond its means.

I’ve said above that you do NOT have to do a one-on-one correlation between what is being simulated and the simulation. If I simulate Rob as a character in a video game I don’t have to also simulate his heart, lungs, liver, and all of his other internals. That’s a big savings in bits and bytes. So the simulated Rob is indeed simpler than any really real Rob, but the simulated Rob does the job as far as video gamers are concerned.


It’s been oft noted that if one is going to simulate one’s entire Cosmos in exacting one-on-one detail, then one would need a computer that’s as large as the Cosmos that one is trying to simulate in the first place, which is ridiculous. The fallacy lies in the phrase “in exactly one-on-one detail”. A simulation doesn’t require that amount of exacting detail in order to be realistic. There’s many a slight-of-hand short-cut that can be entered into when simulating an entire Cosmos, as in a planetarium for instance. No matter how you slice and dice things, planetariums do an excellent job of simulating the Cosmos.

Still, a Doubting Thomas keeps assuming that to simulate the Cosmos you need a one-to-one correlation, that each and every last fundamental particle in the Cosmos has to be accounted for and simulated in order to have a simulation of the Cosmos. That’s not the purpose of simulations. When cosmologists simulate the Cosmos, they are interested in the broad-brush picture. They don’t need to know about each and every fundamental particle within the Cosmos in order to understand the broad-brush picture. A simulation is NOT trying to recreate 100% of reality but only those bits and pieces that are of interest. Thus, the bits and bytes required to simulate the Cosmos as required by cosmologists need only be a tiny, tiny fraction of the bits and bytes needed to simulate 100% of the entirety of the Cosmos.

Despite any sceptical position to the contrary, our cosmologists have done simulations of our Cosmos without having to resort to simulating the Cosmos down to dotting the very last ‘I’ and crossing the very last ‘T’.

If scientists want to simulate two galaxies colliding but their research grant doesn’t give them unlimited funds for crunch power, then they make do with what their budget allows. In the case of our simulators, maybe they have maxed out their bits and bytes; maybe their expenditure has been minimal – on a shoestring budget. We don’t know. We can’t know.

I would argue that astronomers / cosmologists have not only simulated possible planetary worlds and whole virtual solar systems but the entire Universe from the Big Bang event on up the line. Of course those simulations are vastly simpler than what they are simulating but they do the job that requires doing.

Extrapolating one level up, if some agency is simulating our Cosmos, or what we perceive as our Cosmos, then that simulation is NOT meant to be a one-on-one replica of their Cosmos. To those entities, that agency, what they have simulated (our Cosmos) is easily achievable because it is NOT a one-to-one representation of their Cosmos, any more than our cosmologists try to simulate one-on-one what they believe is our Cosmos. We think our virtual reality Cosmos is the be-all-and-end-all of all there is when it’s just a tiny fraction of really real reality – our simulator’s Cosmos.

Of course in one sense we, even as simulations, are a part of The Simulators Cosmos in the same way as our simulations, our virtual realities are part of our Cosmos. We might be the same ‘stuff’ as in we are a part of The Simulators Cosmos too, which let us say is the Full Monty of all things A to Z. But when The Simulators simulated or built or crafted us (yes, you too), they simplified things and say left out all of the vowels. So yes, we ‘exist’ in their Cosmos, but in a simplified virtual reality simulation of their Cosmos. In other words, there’s no one-on-one correlation.


Now to my mind the only valid objection against the Simulation Hypothesis is that one has absolute free will. That argument absolutely undermines the Simulation Hypothesis. The fly in the ointment is that all anyone need to do is prove to the satisfaction of the rest of the world that they actually have free will, and therefore by extension all humans have free will. Then various web sites and publishing houses can delete free will from their inventory and thus free up a massive amount of data storage space for other topics. Meantime, I can put my time, efforts and energy to better use that pondering over our possible virtual reality.


In conclusion, once upon a time in a galaxy far, far away, well let’s just say there existed this technologically advanced civilization who I shall call The Simulators! Let’s also say that for The Simulators to simulate one-on-one their own Big Cosmos would require 100,000 units of computing crunch power. Alas, The Simulators only have 100 units of computing crunch power on tap, so obviously they don’t try to simulate their own Big Cosmos on a one-to-one basis – in its entirety. However, they do simulate a 100 unit computing crunch power mini-Cosmos. That’s us, that’s our mini-Cosmos by the way. So we ‘exist’ in a simulated 100 units of computer crunch power mini-Cosmos. We can in turn maybe manage 1 (one) unit of simulation (within the simulation that we already ‘exist’ in) computing crunch power. We can no more simulate our simulated mini-Cosmos one-on-one than The Simulators can simulate their Big Cosmos one-on-one. And that’s where it all ends, at least for now. Our mini-Cosmos is a simulated mini-Cosmos, simulated by The Simulators in their Big Cosmos. There’s no one-on-one identity correlation anywhere to be had, in any Cosmos. Is everything crystal clear now?

Science librarian; retired.

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The Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers

While computers are now an important part of the lives of human beings, there was a time where computers did not exist. Knowing the history of computers and how much progression has been made can help you understand just how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is.

Unlike most devices, the computer is one of the few inventions that does not have one specific inventor. Throughout the development of the computer, many people have added their creations to the list required to make a computer work. Some of the inventions have been different types of computers, and some of them were parts required to allow computers to be developed further.

The Beginning

Perhaps the most significant date in the history of computers is the year 1936. It was in this year that the first “computer” was developed. It was created by Konrad Zuse and dubbed the Z1 Computer. This computer stands as the first as it was the first system to be fully programmable. There were devices prior to this, but none had the computing power that sets it apart from other electronics.

It wasn’t until 1942 that any business saw profit and opportunity in computers. This first company was called ABC computers, owned and operated by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Two years later, the Harvard Mark I computer was developed, furthering the science of computing.

Over the course of the next few years, inventors all over the world began to search more into the study of computers, and how to improve upon them. Those next ten years say the introduction of the transistor, which would become a vital part of the inner workings of the computer, the ENIAC 1 computer, as well as many other types of systems. The ENIAC 1 is perhaps one of the most interesting, as it required 20,000 vacuum tubes to operate. It was a massive machine, and started the revolution to build smaller and faster computers.

The age of computers was forever altered by the introduction of International Business Machines, or IBM, into the computing industry in 1953. This company, over the course of computer history, has been a major player in the development of new systems and servers for public and private use. This introduction brought about the first real signs of competition within computing history, which helped to spur faster and better development of computers. Their first contribution was the IBM 701 EDPM Computer.

A Programming Language Evolves

A year later, the first successful high level programming language was created. This was a programming language not written in ‘assembly’ or binary, which are considered very low level languages. FORTRAN was written so that more people could begin to program computers easily.

The year 1955, the Bank of America, coupled with Stanford Research Institute and General Electric, saw the creation of the first computers for use in banks. The MICR, or Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, coupled with the actual computer, the ERMA, was a breakthrough for the banking industry. It wasn’t until 1959 that the pair of systems were put into use in actual banks.

During 1958, one of the most important breakthroughs in computer history occurred, the creation of the integrated circuit. This device, also known as the chip, is one of the base requirements for modern computer systems. On every motherboard and card within a computer system, are many chips that contain information on what the boards and cards do. Without these chips, the systems as we know them today cannot function.

Gaming, Mice, & the Internet

For many computer users now, games are a vital part of the computing experience. 1962 saw the creation of the first computer game, which was created by Steve Russel and MIT, which was dubbed Spacewar.

The mouse, one of the most basic components of modern computers, was created in 1964 by Douglass Engelbart. It obtained its name from the “tail” leading out of the device.

One of the most important aspects of computers today was invented in 1969. ARPA net was the original Internet, which provided the foundation for the Internet that we know today. This development would result in the evolution of knowledge and business across the entire planet.

It wasn’t until 1970 that Intel entered the scene with the first dynamic RAM chip, which resulted in an explosion of computer science innovation.

On the heels of the RAM chip was the first microprocessor, which was also designed by Intel. These two components, in addition to the chip developed in 1958, would number among the core components of modern computers.

A year later, the floppy disk was created, gaining its name from the flexibility of the storage unit. This was the first step in allowing most people to transfer bits of data between unconnected computers.

The first networking card was created in 1973, allowing data transfer between connected computers. This is similar to the Internet, but allows for the computers to connect without use of the Internet.

Household PC’s Emerge

The next three years were very important for computers. This is when companies began to develop systems for the average consumer. The Scelbi, Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80, and the Commodore Pet computers were the forerunners in this area. While expensive, these machines started the trend for computers within common households.

One of the most major breathroughs in computer software occurred in 1978 with the release of the VisiCalc Spreadsheet program. All development costs were paid for within a two week period of time, which makes this one of the most successful programs in computer history.

1979 was perhaps one of the most important years for the home computer user. This is the year that WordStar, the first word processing program, was released to the public for sale. This drastically altered the usefulness of computers for the everyday user.

The IBM Home computer quickly helped revolutionize the consumer market in 1981, as it was affordable for home owners and standard consumers. 1981 also saw the the mega-giant Microsoft enter the scene with the MS-DOS operating system. This operating system utterly changed computing forever, as it was easy enough for everyone to learn.

The Competition Begins : Apple vs. Microsoft

Computers saw yet another vital change during the year of 1983. The Apple Lisa computer was the first with a graphical user interface, or a GUI. Most modern programs contain a GUI, which allows them to be easy to use and pleasing for the eyes. This marked the beginning of the out dating of most text based only programs.

Beyond this point in computer history, many changes and alterations have occurred, from the Apple-Microsoft wars, to the developing of microcomputers and a variety of computer breakthroughs that have become an accepted part of our daily lives. Without the initial first steps of computer history, none of this would have been possible.

Rebecca Blain is a professional hobbyist writer who enjoys taking care of her fish and educating people about how to build your own computer which you can learn about here:

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Massage in Bucharest

Recognize it! You’re busy! And so must be! That’s what life is like! But you want more than that, you want to do more for yourself and massage can help. Because massage makes more than a simple relaxation of the mind and body. It keeps your body in shape and gives you enough energy to make you enjoy a longer life better than you do it today.

Massage releases stress. At the moment, stress is a universal evil. Every time you are late, every time you avoid a car in traffic, every time you have trouble working, stress is doing his job. Each time adrenaline increases heart rate and cortisone levels and organs respond to the measure. You will be in a state of nerves and constant agitation.
When there is no release of stress, serious problems such as an upset stomach, hypertension, sleep disturbances, chest pain, or existing illness may worsen.

Some of the changes that may occur are: Anxiety, lack of concentration, depression, permanent fatigue, muscle or bone pain, sexual dysfunction, excessive sleep or insomnia

All these stress-related problems can be diminished and some can be totally eliminated by massage. The researchers concluded that a massage session can lower heart rate and blood pressure, relax your muscles and increase endorphin production. The massage also releases serotonin and dopamine and the result is a general relaxation, both physical and mental.
Our body care must be at the top of the priorities.
By adding the massage to your routine you will look much better and you will be much healthier and relaxed. Massage can improve your vitality and mood. Massage can prepare for a long and beautiful life.

Our masseuses personalize each massage session according to the needs of the individual.
Our massage parlors offer a variety of relaxation styles and techniques to help you. Apart from relaxing, massage can be a powerful ally in reducing pain, increasing energy levels, improving mental and physical performance

We recommend : HotAngels , VipZone , JadePalace , ThaiPassion

After a massage session, you will see how the mental prospects are enriched, the body allows easier handling, better pressure resistance, relaxation and mental alertness, calm and creative thinking.
When you have the impression or force yourself to stay straight, your body is not actually aligned properly. Not only does the posture look bad, but it forces some of the muscles to go muddy all day, while others become weaker. After a long time, the incorrect position may cause other drops. For example, internal organs press on what affects digestion, breathing ability is also diminished, which means that much less blood and oxygen reaches the brain and hence all sorts of other complications.

Massage allows you to return your body to the track. Allowing the body to make healthy and accurate movements is one of the greatest benefits of massage. Massage can relax and restore muscles injured by bad posture, allowing the body to position itself in a natural, painless position.
Apart from posture, there is also anxiety. One of the signs of anxiety and stress can also be heavy breathing. When the body begins to breathe too little and deeply instead of breathing at a natural rithm, it is impossible for one to relax. One reason may also be that the chest muscles and the abdomen get tightened and the air gets harder.

Massage plays an important role in learning the body how to relax and how to improve breathing. Respiratory problems such as allergies, sinuses, asthma or bronchitis are a group of conditions that can benefit from massage. In fact, massage can have a positive impact on respiratory function.

Many of the muscles in the front and back of the upper part of the body are breathing accessory. When these muscles are tight and shorten they can block normal breathing and interrupt effective breathing natural rithm. Massage techniques for stretching and relaxing these muscles improves breathing function and breathability. Massage leads to an opening of the chest as well as structural alignment and nerve dilatation that are required for optimal pulmonary function. A good way to treat respiratory problems with massage is the taping made in Swedish massage. When done on the back, along with vibrations, it can detach the mucus from the lungs and can clean the airways for better later function.

Massage not only relaxes muscles, but helps people become aware of daily stress levels. Once the body recognizes what really means relaxation, the mind can rest easily relax before the stress becomes cornice and harmful. This will help you enjoy a balanced life. Massage controls breathing, allows the mind to re-create relaxation before the occurrence of chronic and harmful stress and increases the level of energy.